​Ethnosociology is not simply the sociology of the ethnic groups. It is something quite different. It is the particular method of studying human society as the development of its primordial and basic ethnic structure. So ethnosociology searches and finds ethnos not only where it is present explicitly, but also where it is absent on the surface but continues to exercise its hidden influence implicitly. Thus ethnosociology interprets “ethnically” also the cases of the non-ethnic societies. How? It will become clear during the development of the present course.


The ethnos as sociological category

Definition of ethnos: M.Weber, S. Shirokogorov 

Main features of the ethnos: the sacred, ethno-universum, collective identity, equality, eternal return

Paradigmatic approaches to the ethnos: primordialism, constructivism, instrumentalism

Process of the ethnosociological development: ethos - people - nation - civil society - global society - post-society

Diachronicity and synchronicity in the ethnosociology

American school of ethnosociology

Morgan Lewis: Ancient society

F. Boas: Founder of cultural anthropology

Catch Robert: Historical particularism

Abram Kardiner: Basic personality

Cora Du Bois: Structure of the modal personality

Clifford Geertz: Symbolic anthropology

Robert Redfield: Folk-society

McCoy Marriott: American ethnosociology today...

Russian school. Sergey Shirokogorov


S.M.Shirokogorov’s role in the creation of Ethnology
"The Social Organization" by Shirokogorov
Equilibrium theory of cultures - ethnic balance factor
Ethnic groups and the environment
Types of inter-ethnic interactions
Ethnic groups and war
Psycho-mental complex and Shamanism
Shirokogorov’s theory of ethnicity


"If we were to select the most intelligent, 

imaginative, energetic, and emotionally stable third of mankind,

 all races would be present".

Franz Boas


​German school of ethnosociology

Johann Gottfried Herder: people as thoughts of God

Johann Jakob Bachofen: mother’s right

Adolf Bastian: elementary thinking and peoples’s thinking

Leo Frobenius tellurism, chtonizm and paideuma

Franz Oppenheimer: the state as a result of ethnic conquest

Ferdinand Tönnies: Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft

Alfred Firkandt: phenomenology of ethnicity

Richard Thurnwald: systematization of knowledge ethnosociological

Wilhelm Mühlman: ethnicity, nation, Etnotzentrum...

English school of ethnosociology​

English evolutionism 

Edward Taylor: evolutionary series of culture and animism

Bronislaw Malinowski: functionalism and social anthropology

James George Frazer: the figure of the sacred king 

Ernest Gellner: from the "Farmers" to the "industry"

Benedict Anderson, a nation as an imagined community
Edward Evan Evans-Pritchard: transmission of cultures
Alfred Radcliffe-Brown: The Social Structure

French school of ethnosociology

Gilbert Durand anthropological structure of the imagination
Georges Dumezil: three-functional theory
Louis Dumont: hierarchical man and holism
Claude Levi-Strauss: structural anthropology
Maurice Leengardt: person and myth in archaic societies
Marcel Mauss: sociology of the gift
Emile Durkheim: social facts and the dichotomy sacred / profane

Russian school. Lev Gumilev

Lev Gumilev: a new stage of Ethnology
Passionarity and its variations
Phase of ethnogenesis
Phase diagram of ethnogenesis by Gumilev.
Hidden History of Eurasia


Phenomenology of ethnicity and ethnic thinking
Reversibility of ethnic intentionality
Operational language: magic and myth
Ethnozentrum and sacred space
Ethnicity and structures of time
Anthropology of ethnicity: shaman, gender, identity
Status, the person, the mask
Ethnic dichotomy
Gender and Work


Shaman as a key figure of the ethnos


Ethnic time: Eternal return

Ethnic space

Ethnic landscape



Manifestation of the Other

Beginning of the History

The Other is inside and outside

Irreversible social changes

​The people

Internal and external "Other"

Anthropology of the people: the figure of a hero

Ethnic duality of the people

The poles of the people and ways of thinking

The role of nomads in laogenesis

Sociological forms of historical creations of the people

The State: mission and violence

The state, the phenomenon of birth and demos

Creation of the People: state, religion, civilization


The Death as the Birth

Struggle against the new

Ethnic ontology

Humans and animals

Family structures

​The nation

The modern state as a sociopolitical phenomenon

The nation as a particular type of society

The political and economic character of the nation

Ethnosociology of the city

The power of the bourgeoisie

The nation and the proletariat

Nationalism as an instrument of nation-building

Xenophobia, chauvinism, racism

​Civil society and global society

Civil society as the antithesis of the ethnic group
Civil society and the nation
The figure of the Citizen (A.Kozhev)
The ideology of human rights

Global society and its boundaries


Post-society concept
Critique of Modernity
Gender problem and pure sexuality
Sociology of clones and Superman
Post-society and global society

​Final conclusions

Actual aims of ethnosociology
Ethnic groups and ethnic relations in modern societies
Ethnic minorities and the practice of tolerance
Ethnic Conflicts